$3.5 Billion

It will cost $3.5 Billion to build a seawall to protect Jacksonville, FL from climate change-induced rising sea levels, according to research from the Center for Climate Integrity. The next most expensive city to protect is New York, at $2B. On a per capita basis, the most expensive cities to protect from rising sea levels are Galveston, TX ($21,282/person) and Barnstable, MA ($20,062/person). Galveston also ranks 4th in the highest absolute cost, at $1.1B.


The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reports that in 2018,  climate and weather disasters killed at least 247 people and cost the nation an estimated $91 billion.  Fourteen separate weather and climate disasters in 2018 cost at least $1 billion each.


According to a study by UC Irvine’s Eric Ringot, and published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Antarctica ice melt has accelerated by 280% in the last 4 decades.

Ice loss in Antarctica has increased from 40 gigatons per year from 1979-90 to 252 gigatons per year from 2009-17. The melt-rate has been accelerating in the most recent decades, up 280% in the second half of the nearly 40 years compared to the first half.